These finds indicate that Copenhagen's origins as a city go back at least to the 11th century.Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age.After further disasters in the early 19th century when Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
The name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.The city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund.The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road.The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning "merchants' harbour", often simply Hafn or Havn ("harbour").The literal English translation would be "Chapman's haven".
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Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark and Copenhagen Business School.The University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark.Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs.The annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980.Originally controlled by the Catholic Church, the university's role in society was forced to change during the Reformation in Denmark in the late 1530s.
In disputes prior to the Reformation of 1536, the city which had been faithful to Christian II, who was Catholic, was successfully besieged in 1523 by the forces of Frederik I, who supported Lutheranism.
Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology, pharmaceuticals and clean technology.
Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become increasingly integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region.
With the establishment of the Kalmar Union (1397–1523) between Denmark, Norway and Sweden, by about 1416 Copenhagen had emerged as the capital of Denmark when Eric of Pomerania moved his seat to Copenhagen Castle.
This makes it the oldest university in Denmark and one of the oldest in Europe.